Glossary of Terms
An introduction to Distributed Ledger and Blockchain Technology
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Artificial Intelligence is the ability to design smart machines and develop self-learning software applications that imitate the traits of the human mind, like reasoning, problem-solving, planning, optimal decision making and sensory perceptions. Artificial Intelligent attempts to outperform human actions in terms of knowledge discovery and has gained the attention of business and research communities all over the world. In the past two decades this field of study has seen rapid progress and is now considered by many experts to be the ideal complementary technology to blockchains.
Haidrun includes multiple AI engines, which are responsible for carrying out artificial intelligence-based tasks. The major responsibilities of such agents are for node classification, transaction processing, block validation, prediction and training the system. These agents are the parts of Aphelion protocol running at the core of Haidrun and handles the overall operation of the blockchain
Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
A computational model based on the structure and functions of biological neural networks. Information that flows through the network affects the structure of the ANN because a neural network changes or learns, in a sense based on that input and output.
A blockchain is a growing list of records, called blocks, that are linked using cryptography. Each block contains a cryptographic hash (unique identifier) of the previous block, a timestamp, and the transaction data. By design, a blockchain is resistant to modification of the data. It is “a distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way”. For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network, collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without alteration of all subsequent blocks and consensus of the network majority.
Any blockchain built on Haidrun is differentiated based on cluster. For each instance, a separate cluster in Haidrun is made and all these clusters are linked with one another using the Aphelion protocol so that they can interact with each other and carry out any kind of transaction.
Consensus algorithms and protocols
In first generation blockchains several consensus algorithms as used such as Proof-of-Work, Proof-of-Stake, Delegated Proof-of-Stake and Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance. Haidrun uses a newly developed consensus algorithm and associated protocol called Aphelion. This protocol has a consensus mechanism based on participating nodes using a voting system, making it much quicker and more efficient in terms of memory and processing power.
Distributed Application (dApp)
An application written with a user interface for input and manipulation with a distributed nature to its deployment. A dApp normally runs on all P2P nodes making up the blockchain. On the Haidrun platform, developers can create simple and secure dApps using the SDK to make them interoperable and scalable and with all the features that Haidrun offers.
The dApp pool enables any dApps built to be extended to work together or utilise each other’s modules, given that both the owners of dApps have authorised these kind of transaction activities. Distributed Apps can also extend the blockchain functionality by providing the features to co-exist in the blockchain application layer.
A digital asset is anything that exists in a digital format and comes with the right to use. In this context it refers to any of the crypto currencies e.g., Bitcoin, Ether.
A software program, commonly a DApp, with functionality to make electronic transactions with another party using crypto currencies.
Feature Extraction Engine
To mitigate the issue of taking control of the network and throughput of the blockchain, a feature extraction agent is used to extract the system information, which can be used to predict not only the performance of the system but also its overall effect on the network, in terms of scalability and security. To feed data into the classification agent, a feature extraction engine is used to extract the data of the nodes at the time of their initialisation and communicate the extracted data to all the classification agents running on the network. The feature extraction engine helps the identification of node performance and managing the overall performance of the network.
Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC)
Inter-blockchain communication or interoperability in Haidrun, is regarded as a methodology in which two different blockchains can operate with one another, either within Haidrun or outside chains. Haidrun will provide IBC with BTC and ETH which currently is not possible on other blockchains. Software Development Kit (SDK) An SDK is a collection of software development tools required to create Distributed Applications (DApps) and Smart Contracts to run on software platforms like Haidrun. Our blockchain SDKs can also be used to provide tools for developers using decentralised Machine Learning platforms to enhance their applications further by including AI extensions.
A smart contract is a computer program or business logic which can automatically execute, control or document legally relevant events and actions according to the terms of a contract or an agreement. The objectives of smart contracts are to reduce or eliminate the need for trusted intermediators. Cost savings can be made on arbitration and enforcement, as well as the reduction of fraud losses, and other malicious and accidental exposures. Haidrun smart contract technology also includes a vulnerability exposure and debugging module. When smart contracts are being implemented, the module provides real time scanning and debugging of the contract file so that before being made available to the community, the owners can see any kind of security breach. The Haidrun smart contract Virtual Machine includes an interoperability mechanism, where any smart contract written on the platform will also be supported on Ethereum blockchain.
The State Engine will maintain the system’s state and upgrade it dynamically, based on the rules accepted and generated by the AI Engine and Pools.
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